First battle of el alamein. First battle of El Alamein, 1

Battles of El

first battle of el alamein

Auchinleck's concentrated artillery fire was proving to be very effective. The cost to both armies was significant. A grinding battle that was similar to many fought during , the Second Battle of El Alamein turned the tide in in favor of the Allies. The second night of the attack was also unsuccessful. The 9th Armoured Brigade led the 10th Armoured Division advance. The infantry had also not got as far as Montgomery had planned. This put the whole Allied attack out of joint and then, at dawn, the 21st Panzer Division arrived on the scene and 132 British tanks and 904 New Zealanders were lost, including 500 captured.

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Battle Of El Alamein

first battle of el alamein

Both commanders ordered an offensive for 2 July. The events at Minqar Qaim changed this. The Germans were pinned down by heavy defensive fire, and were unable to make any progress. There was heavy fighting and the 8th Army slowly ground its way forward. At the start of 1942 Rommel had been pushed back to El Algeila, at the western end of Cyrenaica, but the pursuing British forces were badly stretched. On the left, the 22nd Armoured Brigade would be ready to move forward to protect the infantry as they consolidated on the ridge. Operation Torch began on 8 November, and on the same day the news reached Rommel.

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The Battle of El Alamein

first battle of el alamein

The Ruin Ridge attack was based on a complex plan involving a night attack through minefields. Hitler ordered the Afrika Korps to fight to the last but Rommel refused to carry out this order. He was replaced by Alexander as Commander-in-Chief in the Middle East, Montgomery as commander of the Eighth Army and General Maitland Wilson as commander-in-chief Persia and Iraq Command a shrunken version of Churchill's original idea for a reduced Middle East Command. After initial success, they suffered nearly 50 percent casualties and had to withdraw. Tanks were covered so as to appear as non-threatening lorries. With Rommel on the defensive, Montgomery took this time to build up a sizeable army in preparation for a new offensive, the Second Battle of El-Alamein. Dummy tanks were erected in the region.

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Aftermath

first battle of el alamein

However, when reviewing with all the advantages of hindsight, it seems difficult to claim that the battle was a true tactical stalemate. A few German tanks were able to break up the infantry, which had no armored support. The 9th Armoured Brigade was to break through the enemy gun line and advance 2,000 yards past it. The Allies intercepted his message and Montgomery had the deciphered note in his hands by the next morning. The Corps also contained the 1st and 2nd Free French Groups. While captured supplies proved useful, water and ammunition were constantly in short supply while a shortage of transport impeded the distribution of the supplies that the Axis forces did have. To their south the 4th Indian Division carried out a raid from Ruweisat Ridge.

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Battle Of El Alamein

first battle of el alamein

Aware that an attack was , Rommel had prepared his defenses as best he could, sowing hundreds of thousands of antitank and antipersonnel mines along his front to slow any British advance. Lacking sufficient transportation, Rommel was forced to abandon many of his Italian infantry divisions. During the day Rommel launched unsuccessful counterattacks against the Australians, drawing ever more of his troops to the northern end of the line. The 5th Indian Brigade held the Naqb Abu Dweis box, on the edge of the depression. There was some concern that the Russians wouldn't defend the Caucasus, as an advance in that area would take the Germans further away from Moscow, and the British began to consider the possibility that they would need to form an army to reinforce Persia. Auchinleck's next target was the western end of Ruweisat Ridge, which was now defended by the Italian Brescia and Pavia divisions.

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Identify the winning side of each battle Sides: Allied victory German victory Battles: First battle

first battle of el alamein

It would actually be Rommel who benefited from having no open flanks. The northern end rested on the sea, the southern end on the quagmire of the Qattara Depression. On July 16, the panzer force attacked again, but they were defeated and lost still more tanks. On 24 November Rommel met with Kesselring, and at Marble Arch, the triumphal arch on the boundary between Tripolitania and Cyrenaica, where he was ordered to hold the El Agheila line. The New Zealanders managed to fight their way to El Mreir, but this only meant that they were isolated on the Axis side of the minefields. Our battery also fired for a time, not for long, but very concentrated while it lasted. It succeeded in breaking out on the night of 27 June without serious losses and withdraw east.

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Second Battle of El Alamein in World War II

first battle of el alamein

The Ariete Armored and Trieste Motorized Divisions were now instructed to attack south. Inland from X Corps would be with with only one infantry brigade, , and two artillery regiments around Sidi Hamza about 20 mi 32 km inland, the newly arrived short one brigade because of lack of transport at Minqar Qaim on the escarpment 30 mi 48 km inland and in the open desert to the south. The 23 rd Armored Brigade lost 93 tanks. The fighting continued for the rest of July, and was largely dominated by a series of British counterattacks, which also made little if any progress. This was one of the main reasons why North Africa was so important for the Allies, if they had lost Africa they would lose one of the last ways to get supplies, the only alternative would have been South Africa and that was not only a much longer route but also much more dangerous because of the harsh weather conditions.

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Second Battle of El Alamein

first battle of el alamein

Rommel was plagued by illness and departed for hospital in Germany on 23 September, leaving General Georg von Stumme in command of a depleted Panzerarmee. The British response was also affected by the sandstorm. The German minefields and accurate antitank fire produced a mounting toll of knocked-out British. Between February and May 1942 the front line in North Africa had been the Gazala Line, a British defensive position that ran south from the sea at Gazala, and that was built around a series of defensive 'boxes', brigade sided strong points that were meant to be large enough to defend themselves for at least a week. Meanwhile, the 22nd Armoured Brigade had been engaged at Alam Nayil by 90th Light Division and the Ariete Armoured Division, advancing from the south. Indian 5th Infantry Brigade pushed them back but it was clear from intercepted radio traffic that a further attempt would be made.

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