Why do elements in the same family generally have similar properties. Why do elements in the same family generally have similar properties

Why do elements in the same family have similar properties?

why do elements in the same family generally have similar properties

What are compounds that contain a halogen called? The electron configuration for , for example, is 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6. A trend of decreasing electron affinity going down groups would be expected. Electron affinity also shows a slight trend across a period. Which equation do you expect to occur? Periodic table trends arrows show an increase Since the properties of an element are mostly determined by its electron configuration, the properties of the elements likewise show recurring patterns or periodic behaviour, some examples of which are shown in the diagrams below for atomic radii, ionization energy and electron affinity. If more protons are present, the ion is positive and is known as a cation; if more electrons are present, the ion is negative and referred to as an anion. A covalent radius is one-half the distance between the nuclei of two identical atoms. Groups usually have more significant periodic trends than periods and blocks, explained below.

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Element Families of the Periodic Table

why do elements in the same family generally have similar properties

Students can easily find S by using the atomic number of the noble gas that is one period above the element. Thus, it is relatively easy to predict the chemical properties of an element if one knows the properties of the elements around it. In 1857, German chemist observed that often has four other atoms bonded to it. Odling alluded to the idea of a periodic law but did not pursue it. They are repelled by like electric charges and are attracted to opposite charges. Therefore, the positive nucleus pulls the electrons tighter and the radius is smaller. Z is the total number of electrons in the atom.

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The Periodic Table

why do elements in the same family generally have similar properties

Its popularity is thought to be a result of this layout having a good balance of features in terms of ease of construction and size, and its depiction of atomic order and periodic trends. Many chemists prefer and still use this method. In a group, the valence electrons keep the same effective nuclear charge, but now the orbitals are farther from the nucleus. Russian chemist published the first recognizable periodic table in 1869, developed mainly to illustrate periodic trends of the then-known elements. With the development of modern theories of configurations within atoms, it became apparent that each period row in the table corresponded to the filling of a of electrons. The distance must be apportioned for the smaller cation and larger anion.

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Element Families of the Periodic Table

why do elements in the same family generally have similar properties

Continuing to use Chlorine as an example, the 10 inner electrons S would screen out the positive charge of ten protons. These gaps were subsequently filled as chemists discovered additional naturally occurring elements. A majority of nonmetals are coloured or colourless insulating gases; nonmetals that form compounds with other nonmetals feature. This is what causes these elements to react in the same ways as the other members of the family. There are some instances when this trend does not prove to be correct. It is important to recognize a couple of other important groups on the periodic table by their group name.

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Periodic Properties of the Elements

why do elements in the same family generally have similar properties

Nonmetals tend to gain electrons to form anions. These metals may also form ionic and other compounds and have a charge of +2. Arrange these elements according to decreasing atomic size: Na, C, Sr, Cu, Fr 2. Important members in the family include chlorine Cl , used in making table salt and bleach, and iodine I. Atomic weight worked well enough to allow Mendeleev to accurately predict the properties of missing elements. Electron Affinity Electron affinity E.

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Periodic Properties of the Elements

why do elements in the same family generally have similar properties

Dmitri Mendeleev, a Russian scientist, was the first to create a widely accepted arrangement of the elements in 1869. Once again, because of their similarities in electron configurations, these elements have similar properties to each other. Atoms and Molecules An atom is defined as a basic unit of matter that contains a centralized dense nucleus surrounded by an electron cloud. Therefore, chlorine will take an electron from another atom to become negatively charged. The are recognized as a group and family of elements.

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Why do elements in the same family have similar properties

why do elements in the same family generally have similar properties

Two notable exceptions include silver and mercury. Ionization Energies increase going left to right across a period and increase going up a group. Generally, metals tend to lose electrons to form cations. Within this concept we assume that there is no screening between the outer electrons and that the inner electrons shield the outer electrons from the total positive charge of the nucleus. La-Ac and Lu-Lr are duplicated in a greyed-out style to make it clearer where the lanthanides and actinides fit into the main body of the table.

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