Proper use of et al. Et Al and Et Ux: Two Latin Phrases You Need to Know

Et Al and Et Ux: Two Latin Phrases You Need to Know

proper use of et al

If you are not able to find the primary source, you should cite it through the source that led you to it. Sales are declining in the second quarter P. When referring to the two individuals whose names are used as the band name, the subject is plural. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that a low education level was the only explanatory factor for incorrect inhalation technique adjusted odds ratio 4. Moreover, I don't know, and can't know, who they all are.

Next

Et Al and Et Ux: Two Latin Phrases You Need to Know

proper use of et al

Brown, personal communication, June 13, 2018. Since it is Latin, it is sometimes italicised, although this is a question of style and so is not essential. There is a good deal of confusion surrounding et al. They were asked to say each step as they were performing it, so that all of the steps could be clearly observed. Swaen also states that universities are increasingly using the generator.

Next

Et al.

proper use of et al

Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under a. Use the lead author's name and et al. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics are presented in. This rule applies even if the year of publication is different. However, citations in parentheses should always include the year. After the assessment, patients were given instructions, face-to-face demonstrations regarding the correct use of the controller devices, and training until they could use the devices correctly.

Next

Evaluating inhaler use technique in COPD patients

proper use of et al

Previous studies have revealed that health care providers, including physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and respiratory technicians themselves, may not be acquainted with appropriate device handling. Author contributions C Pothirat developed the study design and carried out acquisition and interpretation of data, statistical analysis, manuscript preparation, and critical revision of intellectual content. Handling errors per device were defined as the percentage of subjects who incorrectly performed each step. As a general rule of thumb you should italicize the title in the in-text citation if it's also italicized in the reference entry. So you'll have to fine-tune your work to the guidelines of the targeted journal.

Next

Et Al.

proper use of et al

Comparison percentages of incorrect inhalation technique between pre-training and post-training visits within groups were analyzed using the chi-square test. No page numbers When quoting a source that has no pages or page numbers, you can include a chapter or paragraph number instead. While there is a fee for long-term access, both frequently offer brief trial periods free of charge. Materials and methods A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in the outpatient chest clinic at Chiang Mai University Hospital, Chiang Mai, Thailand, from March 2013 to February 2014. Italicize the title of periodicals, books, and reports.

Next

How to Use et al. in an Academic Paper

proper use of et al

The in-text citation looks like this: Porter as cited in Johnson, 2017 states that… Note that you only need to include the publication year of the source you consulted here Johnson. Remember that you should use the title of the specific page or article where you found the information, not just the title of the website as a whole. Multivariable analysis Handihaler device set as a reference group due to the lowest incorrect steps of inhalation revealed significant differences in incorrect inhalation techniques between the devices, as demonstrated by the odds ratios presented in. This method may overestimate the prevalence of incorrect use of inhaler devices, since it considers all steps recommended by manufacturers as a potential source of error, but reduces the subjectivity of grading the relevance of some errors over others in the absence of solid knowledge regarding the importance of each error on the distribution of the drug into the airways. Note that the author can also be an organization.

Next

Et seq. legal definition of et seq.

proper use of et al

When I edit biomed articles, I always treat this structure as a plural subject and ensure plural subject-verb concord: Gamma et al. Some of them are even in the titles of much-cited papers from various fields. Both phrases are so commonly used in the English language that they need not be italicized, but do require a period after the last letter. That way, you'll know exactly what you're saying when you use the term. I'm editing a paper which includes these citations: Trathan and Lascelles 2014, BirdLife International 2018 and Kukkala et al.

Next

Evaluating inhaler use technique in COPD patients

proper use of et al

If the source uses headings, cite the heading and the paragraph number following it. Percentage of patient compliance with correct techniques was compared between the two visits using the chi-square test. All author surnames should be given in the initial citation. Woloch holds a Master of Arts in English from the University of Chicago, a Master of Arts in classics from Ohio State University and a postbaccalaureate pre-medical degree from Georgetown University. Exacerbation was defined as a worsening of two or more major symptoms for 2 or more consecutive days as determined by a physician dyspnea, sputum volume, sputum purulence , and requiring treatment with either systemic corticosteroids or antibiotics, or combinations of the two as necessary. According to Chicago Manual of Style, 5.

Next